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Trang chủ / Hoàng thành Thăng Long / Đoan Môn, tính tiếp nối của một công trình cổ

Đoan Môn, tính tiếp nối của một công trình cổ

Đoan Môn là cổng thành phía Nam của Cấm thành (còn gọi là Long thành, hay Long Phượng thành), là nơi ở của nhà vua và hoàng tộc, cũng là nơi tập trung làm việc của triều đình – cơ quan đầu não của các chính quyền phong kiến thuở xưa.

Nhìn từ sân vận động Cột cờ cũ, hay nhìn từ Kỳ đài, Đoan Môn nổi bật với ba tầng lầu uy nghi, tráng lệ. Chỉ là một trong những cổng chính dẫn lối vào Cấm thành, nhưng quy mô hoành tráng của Đoan Môn cũng đủ khiến người xem tưởng tượng được Cấm thành xưa kia nguy nga tới nhường nào.

doanmon1

Đoan Môn nhìn từ Sân vận động Cột Cờ cũ

Kiến trúc cổ xưa

Tầng dưới cùng của Đoan Môn được xây theo lối tường thành cổ với năm cổng thành được dựng cuốn vòm cân xứng gần như tuyệt đối qua “trục thần đạo”, hay còn được gọi là “trục chính tâm”, của Hoàng thành.

Kiến trúc cuốn vòm ở các cổng thành không chỉ mang lại những đường cong duyên dáng, mà còn có kết cấu chịu lực cực tốt. Cho đến ngày nay, những công trình đường hầm hiện đại nhất, kỳ vĩ nhất trên thế giới cũng vẫn sử dụng lối kiến trúc này.

Cổng chính giữa là nơi nhà vua xuất giá mỗi khi có việc kinh lý hoặc vi hành thăm thú dân gian. Phía trên cổng chính giữa còn lưu giữ được tấm biển đá ghi hai chữ Hán “Đoan Môn” được xác định có từ thời Lý.

Mỗi cổng thành ở đây đều được cuốn vòm bằng gạch vồ và đá tảng được ghè đẽo hết sức công phu. Những viên gạch vồ và đá tảng được xếp chồng khít tới mức một sợi tóc cũng khó bề lọt qua.

Khắp bề mặt tường thành từ ngoài vào trong đều được xếp phẳng tới mức đáng kinh ngạc. Tất cả những điều ấy cho thấy trình độ cao siêu của phường thợ xây thành Thăng Long thuở trước.

Ba cổng thành chính giữa vạch thành ba đường hầm thẳng song song với “trục thần đạo”. Trong khi đó, hai đường hầm ngách ở hai bên được xây theo hình chữ L úp vào nhau.

Lối xây dựng năm cổng thành như miêu tả ở trên không chỉ mang ý nghĩa “hội tụ” về triều đình, mà còn giúp đoàn quân hộ giá nhà vua triển khai đội ngũ tề chỉnh hơn.

Trên hết, nếu nhìn từ trên cao sẽ thấy, lối xây dựng ấy mang lại khối kiến trúc cổng thành hình chữ U xoay hướng chầu về triều đình với thế đứng cực kỳ vững chãi.

Các cánh cổng thành ở đây được dựng từ những phiến gỗ lim nguyên khối dày gần bằng một gang tay người lớn. Những cánh cửa đồ sộ này được lắp chạy trên một hệ thống bánh xe lớn và chắc chắn bằng gỗ có bịt thép xung quanh và cột xoay được lắp đặt vào những cối kê, khuy giữ bằng đá nguyên khối đục lỗ tạo thành.

Do không phải là cửa treo nên hệ thống cửa thành ở đây được bảo vệ bằng hệ thống chốt ngang, chốt dưới y hệt cấu trúc cửa nhà cổ.

Hai bên cửa thành, ở phía trong, là hai lỗ then bằng đá hình vuông gắn trực tiếp vào tường thành, kích thước mỗi cạnh khoảng 20cm. Khi đóng cửa thành, người ta sẽ dùng một thanh gỗ lớn chẹn ngang qua hai lỗ then này.

Những tảng đá ở giữa, phía dưới cánh cửa thành cũng được đục những lỗ tròn lớn. Đây có lẽ là dấu vết của lỗ then cửa dọc theo mô tuýp then cửa nhà của người Việt Nam mà ta vẫn gặp trong các công trình nhà ở hiện nay.

doanmon2

Đoan Môn nhìn từ phía trong

Kiến trúc phục dựng của đời sau

Tầng lầu thứ hai được xây dựng theo lối vọng canh với hệ thống cửa trổ đều các hướng. Tuy nhiên, kiến trúc này đã được cải tạo lại và hình dáng của nó đã có nhiều đổi khác so với thuở ban đầu.

Trên cửa chính giữa của tầng lầu thứ hai có đắp nổi ba chữ Hán “Ngũ môn lầu”. Chính vì ba chữ Hán này mà nhiều người vẫn quen gọi Đoan Môn là Ngũ môn lầu.

Mặt sàn của tầng lầu thứ hai rất rộng rãi. Khoảng không gian ấy không chỉ đủ để dựng Ngũ môn lầu có thể dùng làm nhà ở, mà còn thoải mái rộng để tạo nên những khoảng sân thoáng đãng.

Trên khoảng sân ấy, người ta đổ đất, trồng cỏ và những cây đại cổ thụ thân cỡ một vòng tay người lớn. Sự xuất hiện của những cây đại cổ thụ trên sân của tầng lầu thứ hai cho thấy bề mặt thành Thăng Long xưa kia được gia cố rất chắc chắn.

Khoảng sân và tầng lầu rộng rãi ấy chính là nơi nhà vua ngự giá để ủy lạo binh sỹ trước khi xuất trận, đón tướng sỹ thắng trận trở về, hay xem biểu diễn võ nghệ, trò chơi dân gian phía dưới.

Nếu như lối dẫn lên tầng hai là hai cầu thang gạch lộ thiên rộng lớn, thì lối dẫn lên tầng lầu thứ ba lại là một cầu thang nhỏ được dựng tương đối kín bên trong.

Cũng giống tầng lầu thứ hai, tầng lầu thứ ba được phục dựng lại sau này và kiến trúc cũng có nhiều thay đổi so với nguyên bản. Nhưng những nét kiến trúc cổ xưa vẫn được trân trọng giữ gìn.

Tầng lầu thứ ba được dựng theo lối vọng lâu nóc hai tầng tám mái, các góc mái được trang trí bằng hình tượng rồng cuốn.

Đoan Môn là di tích trên mặt đất có diện tích lớn nhất trong số các công trình kiến trúc Hoàng thành Thăng Long xưa còn sót lại. Vào thăm Hoàng thành Thăng Long, có lẽ không ai muốn bỏ qua địa chỉ quý báu này…

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