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Jerusalem – Thành cổ Jerusalem (1982)

Jerusalem là một thành phố cổ ở Trung Đông nằm trên lưu vực sông giữa Địa Trung Hải và Biển Chết có độ cao 650-840 mét so với mực nước biển

Thành phố nằm phía đông của Tel Avic, phía nam của Ramallah, phía tây của Jericho và phía bắc của Bethlehem.

Jerusalem được cho là thành phố huyền bí của nhân loại, là thành địa chung của ba tôn giáo gồm: đạo Do Thái, đạo Cơ đốc và đạo Hồi. Jerusalem có lịch sử từ rất lâu đời. Theo thần thoại và truyền thuyết Do Thái, Jerusalem được xây dựng bởi David, tổ tiên của thánh tổ Abraham. Theo như những di vật khảo cổ học được tìm thấy thì sự sống ở Jerusalem bắt đầu tồn tại từ 3 nghìn năm trước Công nguyên. Những tài liệu lịch sử được lưu trữ cho đến nay thì cho biết thành phố được nhắc đến lần đầu tiên trong lịch sử vào khoảng những năm 2000 trước Công Nguyên. Đến với Jerusalem bất kỳ ai cũng cảm thấy như mình đang lạc vào một thánh địa bí ẩn bởi mỗi viên đá trên đường cho đến những bức tường rêu phong đều ghi dấu ấn lịch sử hàng nghìn năm của thánh địa cổ kính này.

 jerusalem2

Người Canaanite là những người đầu tiên xây dựng và sáng lập nên thành phố, tuy nhiên cũng có tài liệu lại ghi là người Jebusite. Thời kỳ đó thành phố là thủ đô của các vương quốc Do Thái gồm: Israel, Judah và Judea. Đến thời kỳ các Ngôi đền ( Ngôi đền thứ nhất và Ngôi đền thứ hai) Thành phố tiếp tục giữ vai trò quan trọng là Đất Thánh trong thời kỳ thống trị của người Hồi Giáo. Cho đến tận ngày hôm nay sau mấy nghìn năm Jerusalem vẫn là thành phố linh thiêng nhất của người Do Thái và có ý nghĩa đặc biệt với đạo Cơ đốc và đạo Hồi.

Một trong những địa điểm quan trọng của thành cổ là Núi Đền. Khu núi Đền nằm ở phía Đông Nam của thành cổ Jerusalem, đây là một di tích rất quan trọng của người Hồi giáo. Nhà thờ Al Haram với hình ảnh mái vòm màu vàng rực lại là biểu tượng của Jerusalem. Dưới mái vòn màu vàng này là Tảng đá Khởi thủy – một tảng đá lớn có hình thù kỳ lạ, nơi mà người Hồi giáo tin rằng Muhammad đã từ đó bay lên trời.

Một địa điểm vô cùng quan trọng khác của Jerusalem là Bức tường than khóc nằm ở phía Tây của thành. Sau trận chiến với quan La Mã, bức tường thành bị phá hủy và hiện nay chỉ còn lại một đoạn ngắn của tường thành. Đã hơn 2000 năm trôi qua kể từ ngày Chúa Jesus giáng sinh, các tín đồ vẫn đổ về đây từ khắp nơi trên thế giới để cầu nguyện. Người Do Thái xưa và nay rất tồn sùng bức tường này, vì đối với họ đây là một di tích lịch sử và là niềm tự hào dân tộc.

Từ năm 1948 đến năm 1967, phần phía Tây của Jerusalem được quản lý bởi Israel như thủ đô của đất nước, trong khi phía Đông Jerusalem được quản lý bởi Jordan. Thành phố được hợp nhất lại bởi thắng lợi của Israel trong Chiến tranh, mặc dù thời điểm đó trong thành phố vẫn còn nhưng tranh chấp nội bộ, Luật của Israel tuyên bố từ năm 1980 Jerusalem là thủ đô vĩnh viễn, không bị chia cách của Israel. Trong khi đó phía Đông Jerusalen lại được cho là thủ đô được chờ đợi của đất nước Palestine sau này. Đến hôm nay, vị trí những khu vực linh thiêng của Jerusalem vẫn còn xảy ra tranh chấp.

Năm 1982, Tổ chức Khoa học, Giáo dục và Văn hóa Liên hợp quốc đã công nhận Thành cổ Jerusalem là Di sản văn hóa thế giới. (danh sách di sản có nguy cơ bị đe dọa)

Với dân số là 704.900 nghìn người, Jerusalem là thành phố hội tụ nhiều thành phần dân tộc, tôn giáo và những nhóm kinh tế xã hội. Khu vực được gọi là “ Thành phố cổ” được bao vây bởi những bức tường và bao gồm bốn khu: Khu Armenia, Cơ Đốc, Do Thái và Hồi Giáo.

Năm 2013, giới khảo cổ học vừa phát hiện nhiều mảnh vỡ đồ gốm tại khu vực gần thành cổ Jerusalem, trong đó nổi bật là chiếc bát gốm 2.700 tuổi được khắc tiếng Do Thái cổ.

 jerusalem1

Mảnh bát gốm 2.700 tuổi với dòng chữ Do Thái cổ. Ảnh: Clara Amit / Israel Antiquities Authority

Những hiện vật được tìm thấy trong khu vực Gihon Spring, thuộc khu khảo cổ David ở thành phố thánh địa Jerusalem. Hiện vật quý giá nhất là chiếc bát gốm với những dòng chữ Do Thái cổ ở phần rìa. Theo nhóm chuyên gia, chiếc bát có từ năm 600 hoặc năm 700 trước công nguyên.

Ông Joe Uziel, nhà khảo cổ học tham gia dự án cho biết, những dòng chữ Do Thái cổ trên chiếc bát đề cập đến một nhân vật trong Kinh thánh của người Do Thái.

Sau khi nghiên cứu cẩn thận chiếc bát, nhóm khảo cổ kết luận, dòng chữ trên được khắc trước khi đất sét được nung trong nhiệt độ cao để trở thành chiếc bát gốm. Tuy nhiên, nhóm khoa học vẫn chưa biết vì sao chiếc bát lại được khắc chữ. Một số nhà khảo cổ khác cho rằng, có thể chiếc bát được sử dụng để bán cho thương nhân.

Cũng trong năm 2013. một kho báu gồm các đồng tiền vàng cổ và trang sức hiếm đã được tìm thấy gần điểm giao nhau của 4 tôn giáo chính trên thế giới tại Jerusalem.

Các nhà khảo cổ học đã khai quật một kho báu 1.400 năm tuổi gồm tiền vàng và nữ trang, trong đó “đinh” nhất là chiếc mề đay khắc hình các biểu tượng của Do Thái giáo, tại quần thể Temple Mount. Đây là vùng đất thánh, nơi khởi nguồn đạo Do Thái, Thiên Chúa, La Mã và Hồi giáo. Trưởng nhóm dự án Eilat Mazar của Đại học Hebrew phấn khích cho biết đây là phát hiện để đời, nhất là khi tìm được chiếc mề đay có bề ngang 10 cm. Trên bề mặt vàng là hình ảnh của cây đàn 7 nhánh, sừng cừu đực và mẩu giấy Torah. Phần còn lại của kho tàng là 36 đồng tiền vàng và đồ trang sức bạc, cũng được đào thấy cách bức tường phía nam của Temple Mount khoảng 46 m.

Những đồng tiền được tìm thấy ở một nơi khác. “36 đồng tiền vàng nhiều khả năng có nguồn gốc từ những thời kỳ trị vì khác nhau của các hoàng đế Byzantine, kéo dài từ giữa thế kỷ thứ 4 đến đầu thế kỷ thứ 7”, theo chuyên gia Lior Sandberg của Đại học Hebrew. Cùng với các đồng tiền vàng, nhóm khảo cổ học tìm thấy 1 đôi hoa tai lớn bằng vàng, lăng kính 6 cạnh bạc mạ vàng, và 1 thỏi bạc. Những phần còn lại của vải vóc được trộn lẫn bên trong kho báu, cho thấy những vật này từng được cất giấu bên trong một chiếc túi vải. Trả lời phỏng vấn tờ Times of Israel, tiến sĩ Mazar hân hoan nói: “Tôi chưa bao giờ nhìn thấy nhiều vàng đến thế trong đời mình”.

Mazar và đồng sự đã nỗ lực ráp các mảnh của câu đố khảo cổ học và dựng thành một câu chuyện để giải thích tại sao kho báu này bị bỏ lại Jerusalem suốt bao thế kỷ. Họ phỏng đoán rằng chúng đã bị vứt đó khi người Ba Tư tấn công Jerusalem vào năm 614. Sau khi quân đoàn Ba Tư đánh bại các nhà trị vì Byzantine Thiên Chúa giáo, nhiều người Do Thái quay về thành phố.

Tuy nhiên, trong 15 năm sau đó, quyền lực xứ Ba Tư nhạt nhòa dần, người Byzantine Thiên Chúa giáo khôi phục sự ảnh hưởng, và người Do Thái lại bị trục xuất khỏi đất thánh. Bà Mazar cho hay những người Do Thái cất giấu kho báu trên có thể là nạn nhân của tình trạng chuyển đổi quyền lực chính trị.

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