Di sản văn hóa thế giới
Hoàng Thành Thăng Long
Trang chủ / Hoàng thành Thăng Long / Ngược dòng lịch sử – Hà Nội thời kỳ tiền Thăng Long: Kỳ 1 “Vài nét về vùng đất Hà Nội thời kỳ tiền Thăng Long”

Ngược dòng lịch sử – Hà Nội thời kỳ tiền Thăng Long: Kỳ 1 “Vài nét về vùng đất Hà Nội thời kỳ tiền Thăng Long”

Vùng đất Hà Nội hiện nay nói chung, khu vực các quận nội thành nói riêng, là một trung tâm tụ cư sớm của người Việt cổ. Trên địa bàn Hà Nội các nhà khảo cổ học đã phát hiện được nhiều di chỉ văn hóa thời đại đồng thau, từ Phùng Nguyên đến Đông Sơn. Tại khu vực các quận nội thành, tìm thấy ở vùng Quần Ngựa (Ba Đình), hồ Bẩy Mẫu (Hai Bà Trưng) các di chỉ thuộc thời kỳ văn hóa Phùng Nguyên (sơ kỳ đồng thau, cách ngày nay 3.500 đến 4000 năm); ở vùng ven Hồ Tây (quận Tây Hồ), Ngọc Hà (quận Ba Đình) các di chỉ và hiện vật thuộc thời kỳ văn hóa Đông Sơn (sơ kỳ sắt, cách ngày nay trên dưới 2.000 năm cho đến gần 3.000 năm).

cac-loai-riu-da-di-chi-dinh-trang-co-loa-khai-quat-2010

Các loại Rìu đá – di chỉ Đình Tràng, xã Cổ Loa (khai quật khảo cổ năm 2010)

Khu vực trung tâm Hà Nội hiện nay thời vua Hùng, vua Thục thuộc về bộ Tây Vu[1]; thời thuộc Hán là huyện Tây Vu (do bộ Tây Vu thời dựng nước – nhà Hán chuyển thành) và huyện Phong Khê; thời thuộc Ngô – Tấn là huyện Vũ An và Nam Định đều thuộc quận (có khi đổi thành châu) Giao Chỉ, Giao Châu. Cho đến khoảng giữa thế kỷ V vùng trung tâm Hà Nội mới được đặt thành một đơn vị hành chính (khoảng đời Hiếu Vũ Đế nhà Lưu Tống (454 – 456), đó là huyện Tống Bình (sau đó đổi là quận). Quận Tống Bình ở thế kỷ V, VI gồm các huyện là Nghĩa Hoài, Tuy Ninh… Năm 589 nhà Tùy thống nhất Trung Quốc và tiến hành một số thay đổi hành chính trên vùng đất nước ta: đặt 5 quận, trong đó có quận Giao Chỉ – tức vùng Bắc Bộ gồm 9 huyện, trong đó có huyện Tống Bình. Năm 618 nhà Đường thay thế nhà Tùy cai trị Trung Quốc, đặt Giao Châu tổng quản phủ kiêm quản 10 châu, trong đó có châu Tống Bình (năm 621); năm 679 đặt An Nam đô hộ phủ gồm 12 châu, 59 huyện do chức Kinh lược sứ (sau đổi làm Tiết độ sứ) đứng đầu, bao gồm toàn bộ lãnh thổ Việt Nam từ Đèo Ngang ra và thêm cả phần phía Nam hai tỉnh Quảng Tây, Quảng Đông của Trung Quốc.

02

Ngói chữ nhật lợp góc mái trang trí mặt linh thú – thời kỳ Đại La, thế kỷ VIII-IX (khai quật tại Hoàng thành Thăng Long)

Đầu thế kỷ VII (năm 607) chính quyền đô hộ nhà Tùy chuyển trị sở của quận Giao Chỉ từ Long Biên (Bắc Ninh) về huyện Tống Bình. Huyện Tống Bình, trị sở của quận Giao Chỉ đời Tùy, tới năm 621 nhà Đường đổi là Tống Châu gồm ba huyện: Tống Bình (là châu trị), Hoằng Giáo (hay Hoằng Nghĩa), Nam Định. Đến năm 622 nhà Đường lại chia huyện Tống Bình, đặt thành hai huyện Giao Chỉ, Hoài Đức. Vậy huyện Giao Chỉ mà Tân Đường thư cho là trị sở của Giao Châu chính là một phần huyện Tống Bình cũ. Năm 623, Tống Châu gọi là Nam Tống Châu. Năm đầu hiệu Trinh Quán (627) nhà Đường bỏ Nam Tống Châu, cả ba huyện Hoằng Giáo, Hoài Đức, Giao Chỉ lại nhập lại thành huyện Tống Bình, lúc này thuộc Giao Châu và là trị sở của Giao Châu. Còn tên huyện Giao Chỉ từ năm 627 trở đi lại được đặt cho đất Nam Từ Châu cũ (gồm ba huyện Từ Liêm, Ô Diên, Vũ Lập nay nhập thành huyện Giao Chỉ)[2]. Phương dư kỷ yếu cho rằng huyện Giao Chỉ đời Tùy là đất huyện Luy Lâu đời Hán, năm 621 đặt Giao Châu ở đó, lại tách đặt ba huyện Từ Liêm, Ô Diên, Vũ Lập đặt Từ Châu. Năm 623 gọi là Nam Từ Châu, năm 627 bỏ châu, ba huyện sáp nhập vào huyện Giao Chỉ. Năm 628 “dời huyện trị (Giao Chỉ) đến thành Giao Chỉ cũ nhà Hán, vẫn là trị sở Giao Châu. Năm đầu hiệu Bảo Lịch (825) dời châu trị đến huyện Tống Bình” [3]. Điều này sai. Trong hành trình từ Bắc Bộ nước ta sang Ấn Độ mà Giả Đam ghi lại đời Trinh Nguyên (785 – 805) có chép “Từ (phủ trị) An Nam đi qua Giao Chỉ, Thái Bình, hơn 100 dặm thì đến Phong Châu[4] (từ Hà Nội qua Hoài Đức sang sông đến Yên Lãng rồi đến Việt Trì (Gia Ninh, trị sở Phong Châu) – TQV). Vậy Giao Chỉ cuối thế kỷ thứ VIII không phải là trị sở Đô hộ phủ. Còn huyện Nam Định thì vốn có từ đời Ngô, đến đời Tùy bị sáp nhập vào huyện Tống Bình rồi đến năm 621 tách khỏi huyện Tống Bình làm thành một huyện thuộc Tống Châu, đến năm 627 Tống Châu bị bỏ thì Nam Định thành một huyện riêng thuộc Giao Châu, đất đai đại để ở dọc sông đào Phủ Lý (Hà Nam) và miền hữu ngạn sông Hồng[5]. (Đầu đời Nguyễn, Hà Nam còn là một bộ phận của Hà Đông và Hà Nội). Địa phận của huyện Tống Bình xưa là khá rộng lớn. Nó bao gồm một phần đất của các tỉnh Bắc Ninh, Hà Tây, Hưng Yên và đa phần Hà Nội (trừ hai huyện Sóc Sơn và Từ Liêm) bây giờ.

03

Giếng nước, thời Đại La – thế kỷ IX và được tái sử dụng vào thời Lý – thế kỷ XI (khai quật tại Hoàng thành Thăng Long)

04

Bình men xanh 4 quai thời Đường, thế kỷ VII-IX (khai quật tại Hoàng thành Thăng Long)

Năm 679 nhà Đường lập An Nam đô hộ phủ thì Tống Bình trở thành trung tâm của phủ An Nam đô hộ rộng lớn cho đến ngày Khúc Thừa Dụ khôi phục nền tự chủ. Họ Khúc, họ Dương đóng thủ phủ ở đây. Từ Ngô Quyền – nhà Ngô (939 – 965), qua Đinh (968 – 980) đến Tiền Lê (981 – 1009) kinh đô của quốc gia độc lập người Việt chuyển về Cổ Loa (Ngô), hay xây dựng đô thành mới Hoa Lư (Đinh, Tiền Lê) và vì thế thủ phủ Tống Bình có phần suy giảm. Tuy nhiên, nó vẫn đã là một thành thị và sẽ sống dậy, phát triển về chất, ở một tầm cao mới sau ngày Lý Công Uẩn định đô trở thành một trung tâm đầu não hành chính (quận, phủ) việc thiết lập các cơ sở làm việc (dinh thự) và bảo vệ nó (thành luỹ) cũng được tiến hành.

Mời Quý độc giả đón xem tiếp Kỳ 2 : “Hệ thống thành lũy”

Ban biên tập

Chú thích:

[1] Cũng có người xác định thuộc bộ Giao Chỉ, chẳng hạn, Phạm Văn Kinh: Từ La Thành đến Thăng Long, Nghiên cứu lịch sử, số 6 – 2000.

[2] Tân Đường thư, q.43 thượng, 9b.

[3] Phương dư kỷ yếu, q.112, Giao Chỉ thành. H.Maspéro trong L’expédition de Ma Yuan, BEFEO XVIII, 1918 cũng theo ý kiến này và đặt nhầm thành Luy Lâu “ở trên bờ sông Nhuệ”

[4] Tân Đường thư, q.43 hạ, 17b. Cũng xem Pelliot: Deux itinéraises de Chine en Indo à la fin du VIIIè siècle, BEFEO, IV, 1904, p.354

[5] Xem H.Maspéro: Protectorat d’Annam sous les T’ang, BEFEO X, 1910

270 bình luận

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