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Hoàng Thành Thăng Long
Trang chủ / Hoàng thành Thăng Long / Thăng Long – đơn vị hành chính đặc biệt

Thăng Long – đơn vị hành chính đặc biệt

Thăng Long được nhiều người biết đến với tư cách là kinh đô của nhà nước phong kiến trong suốt chặng đường lịch sử dài của Việt Nam. Với tư cách là kinh đô của một nước độc lập, Thăng Long luôn được coi là đơn vị hành chính đặc biệt.

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Thăng Long luôn được coi là đơn vị hành chính đặc biệt

Thời kỳ tiền Thăng Long, Hà Nội bấy giờ có tên là Tống Bình, được đặt là phủ. Trong suốt thời Bắc thuộc, phủ Tống Bình trở thành nơi đóng quân đô hộ của các tập đoàn phong kiến phương Bắc để duy trì bộ máy cai trị, đàn áp ở nước ta. Đến thời nhà Đường, phủ Tống Bình đã là một nơi sầm uất, nhộn nhịp. Sử sách nhà Đường còn ghi: Phủ Tống Bình chiếm 11 trong tổng số 55 hương của Giao Châu (tên gọi do nhà nước phong kiến phương Bắc đặt cho nước ta thời bấy giờ) với 15 vạn dân (150.000 người). Phủ Tống Bình khi ấy cũng là nơi tập trung khoảng 4.200 viên quan lại, 5.000 (có lúc lên tới hàng chục nghìn) quân đồn trú.

Sang thời kỳ trị vì của các triều đại phong kiến tự chủ trước nhà Lý, kinh đô của nước Việt được đặt ở nhiều nơi khác nhau, nổi bật là Cổ Loa (nay thuộc Đông Anh, Hà Nội) và Hoa Lư (nay thuộc Ninh Bình), nhưng phủ Tống Bình vẫn tồn tại như là một đơn vị hành chính thuộc triều đình phong kiến tập quyền (tương đương cấp tỉnh hiện nay) với hệ thống thành quách do quân đô hộ phong kiến phương Bắc đắp, sử vẫn gọi là Đại La thành.

khacdulich

Khách du lịch thăm Hoàng Thành Thăng Long

Sang thời Lý – Trần – Hồ, phủ Tống Bình trở thành kinh đô của nước Việt độc lập, được vua Lý Thái Tổ đổi tên là Thăng Long. Tuy chưa tìm được tư liệu nào ghi chép về tư cách đơn vị hành chính của Thăng Long thời ấy, nhưng một số học giả cho rằng kinh đô Thăng Long được gọi là lộ hoặc phủ.

Tới thời nhà Lê, kinh đô Thăng Long được đổi tên thành Đông Kinh. Từ đời Lê Thánh Tông (1460-1497), triều đình chia đơn vị hành chính cả nước thành 13 đạo. Dưới đạo, lại cho đặt thành các phủ, huyện, châu rồi đến xã. Tuy nhiên, kinh đô Thăng Long bấy giờ lại không gọi là đạo, mà gọi là phủ Trung Đô. Phủ Trung Đô gồm 2 huyện Quảng Đức và Vĩnh Xương. Năm 1469, phủ Trung Đô được đổi tên thành phủ Phụng Thiên, vẫn gồm 2 huyện của phủ Trung Đô trước đó. Mỗi huyện này được biên chế thành 16 phường. Như vậy, phủ Trung Đô, hay phủ Phụng Thiên thời Lê bao gồm 36 phường. Như vậy, đây là thời kỳ bắt đầu quy hoạch Thăng Long 36 phố phường. Phủ Phụng Thiên được giữ nguyên cho tới thời nhà Mạc và thời Lê Trung Hưng. Tuy nhiên, huyện Vĩnh Xương được đổi tên thành huyện Thọ Xương. Phủ Phụng Thiên giai đoạn này đã cực kỳ sầm uất. Theo ước tính của nhà buôn W.Dampier, kinh thành Thăng Long khi ấy có khoảng 20.000 nóc nhà. Cha đạo A.de Rhodes ước đoán Thăng Long bấy giờ có khoảng 1 triệu dân. Còn giáo sĩ Marini thì nói rằng trong khu vực dân cư ở phủ Phụng Thiên thế kỷ XVII đã xuất hiện những ngôi nhà 2 tầng.

Dưới thời nhà Nguyễn, kinh đô được chuyển vào Huế. Phủ Phụng Thiên được đổi tên thành phủ Hoài Đức. Năm 1831, vua Minh Mạng cho thành lập tỉnh Hà Nội, gồm phủ Hoài Đức và 3 phủ khác. Tới năm 1888, sau khi xâm chiếm Hà Nội, người Pháp thành lập thành phố Hà Nội.

Sang thời kỳ nước nhà độc lập, Việt Nam vẫn duy trì thành phố Hà Nội và đặt nơi đây làm thủ đô, trái tim của cả nước, cho tới tận hôm nay.

TT Bảo tồn Di sản Thăng Long Hà Nội

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