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Trang chủ / Hoàng thành Thăng Long / Thi Đình thời Lê tại Hoàng thành Thăng Long – đỉnh cao của khoa cử Việt Nam

Thi Đình thời Lê tại Hoàng thành Thăng Long – đỉnh cao của khoa cử Việt Nam

Trong nền khoa cử Nho học Việt Nam xưa, thí sinh phải trải qua 3 kỳ thi là thi Hương, thi Hội, thi Đình. Thi Đình (Đình thí) hay thi Điện (Điện thí) được tổ chức tại sân rồng điện Kính Thiên do nhà vua trực tiếp ra đề và chấm thi. Đây là bậc thi cao nhất để chọn ra những người hiền tài bổ nhiệm các chức quan trong triều.

thi-dinh-01

Tư liệu, hình ảnh về Thi Đình thời Lê hiện đang trưng bày tại sân điện Kính Thiên (khu di sản Hoàng thành Thăng Long)

Khái quát chung về khoa cử và khái niệm Thi Đình/ Điện thí

Việt Nam là quốc gia có truyền thống khoa cử lâu đời. Nếu tính từ khoa thi thứ nhất (1075) được mở ra dưới thời Lý đến khoa thi cuối cùng dưới triều Nguyễn (1919) thì lịch sử khoa cử có bề dày hơn tám trăm năm. Nếu như triều Lý là triều đại bắt đầu tổ chức đặt ra chế độ khoa cử nhưng bị giám đoạn nhiều và không thường xuyên thì vương triều Trần là triều đại duy trì bổ sung và hoàn thiện khoa cử. Một vấn đề đặt ra là Thời Lý đã có thi Đình chưa?. Cho đến nay, chưa có câu trả lời chính xác. Sách Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư chỉ ghi một chi tiết vào thời Lý có thi Đại đình (Thi ở trong sân lớn). Vậy phải chăng đây là kỳ thi Đình trước sân của nhà vua (?). Nhưng chắc chắn, lần đầu tiên dưới triều Trần (năm 1246) chính thức lấy đầy đủ học vị Tam khôi (Trạng nguyên, Bảng nhãn, Thám hoa).Có lẽ, đây là bằng chứng chắc chắn để khẳng định kỳ thi Đình được tổ chức trong Hoàng thành Thăng Long do nhà vua đứng ra tổ chức. Nhưng phải đến triều Lê, cùng với Nho giáo, Nho học được đề cao và phát triển cực thịnh. Từ thế kỷ thứ XV trở đi, các kỳ thi Hương, thi Hội và thi Đình được tổ chức thường xuyên hằng năm tại các trấn, xứ và ở Kinh đô. Thông thường cứ 3 năm, triều đình tổ chức một kỳ thi. Sỹ tử trải qua 3 kỳ thi Hương được nhận học vị sinh đồ (tú tài), trải qua bốn kỳ được nhận học vị Cống sinh (Cử nhân). Sau khi thi đỗ Cống sinh trúng cách, thí sinh được dự kỳ thi Đình để lấy học vị tiến sĩ. Kỳ thi Hương và thi Hội số thí sinh dự thi thường lên đến vài nghìn người nhưng số người đỗ kỳ thi Hội chỉ được vài chục người thậm chí có khoa chỉ lấy đỗ vài ba người. Đây thực sự là những người ưu tú, nhân tài của đất nước. Sau kỳ thi Hội, thí sinh lại tiếp tục vào thi Đình – bậc thi cuối cùng trong thang danh vọng của học vấn khoa cử.

Từ các kỳ thi ở địa phương cho đến trung ương đều có các chức quan trông coi việc thi và chấm thi. Đứng đầu một kỳ thi là quan Đề điệu(Còn gọi là Chánh chủ khảo), thứ đến là quan Tri cống cử (Phó chánh chủ khảo), tiếp đến là các quan thực hiện các công việc cụ thể như: Thu quyển (thu bài thi); Di phong (Niêm phong bài thi); Quan soạn tự hiệu (Đánh số kí hiệu, rọc phách, khớp phách; ráp phách), quan Đằng lục (Chép lại bài thi của Thí sinh); Quan đối độc (Đối chiếu bản chính và bản chép); Tuần xước (Bảo vệ an ninh trong quá trình thi). Riêng kỳ thi Đình, nhà vua đích thân ra đề thi và chấm thi có sự tham dự đầy đủ của các quan văn võ bá quan trong triều. Đến thời Lê Trung hưng có sự tham dự của chúa Trịnh (Bên Phủ chúa) cũng vào Cấm thành ngồi tham dự cùng với vua Lê trên điện Kính Thiên. Chúa Trịnh ngồi cùng hàng, ở bên hữu (bên phải) của vua Lê nhưng thấp hơn vua Lê một chút.

thi-dinh-02

Cảnh thi Đình – Samuel Baron 1685
Nguồn: Sách Khoa cử Việt Nam tập hạ: Thi Hội, Thi Đình – Nguyễn Thị Chân Quỳnh. Nhà xuất bản văn học. 2007

Thi Đình thời Lê được tổ chức tại sân rồng Điện Kính Thiên

Thi Đình thường được tổ chức trong Hoàng thành Thăng Long, dưới sân Long trì, trước điện Kính Thiên. Thời gian thi trong một ngày. Số người dự kỳ thi Hội có đến hàng nghìn người, có năm đến 5000- 6000 người nhưng đến kỳ thi Đình chỉ còn khoảng vài chục người. Điều đặc biệt của kỳ thi này là những người đã đỗ tiến sĩ (trong thi Hội) mới được tham dự. Vì thế, trong kỳ thi này, các thí sinh không bị đánh trượt mà chỉ xếp thứ tự cao thấp.

Trong kỳ thi Đình, thí sinh phải làm Bài Văn sách theo thể văn Bát cổ (tám vế) đối nhau. Đề bài của bài văn sách thường liên quan đến những vấn đề bức thiết nhất của đất nước mà triều đình quan tâm như: quốc kế an dân, quốc phú binh cường… Trong khi thi Đình, các sĩ tử thường dùng thể văn chữ Hán nhưng cũng có những thí sinh viết bài thi bằng chữ Nôm. Quá trình coi thi phải được tiến hành nghiêm túc, cẩn mật, chặt chẽ.

Nghi thức thi Đình được nhà sử học Phan Huy Chú miêu tả kỹ trong Lịch triều hiến chương loại chí như sau: Sáng sớm ngày thi, Thượng thiết ty (giữ việc bầy nghi vệ) đặt ngai vua ở chính giữa điện Kính Thiên, bên phải ngai chúa nhưng thấp hơn. Các quan bài trí không gian thi, chuẩn bị quyển thi, bút, nghiên, mực; lều thi đặt ở hai bên sân rồng. Các quan Đề điệu (Chánh chủ khảo), Tri cống cử (Phó Chánh chủ khảo), Giám thí (người trông thi), Tuần xước (quan võ trông thi) có mặt tại khu vực sân rồng. Nghi vệ, cờ xí trang hoàng lộng lẫy.

Hồi trống thứ nhất, các đại thần văn võ từ cửa Đoan Môn tiến vào chầu. Hồi trống thứ hai, rước ngự giá vua và chúa đến điện Kính Thiên. Vua đội mũ xung thiên, mặc áo hoàng bào, mang đai ngọc cùng chúa ngự tọa. Quan tự ban (tổ chức) dẫn quan văn chầu bên tả, quan võ chầu bên hữu, các thí sinh đứng sau hàng quan văn. Sau khi hành lễ, Lễ quan (quan Bộ Lễ) tâu danh sách thí sinh dự thi. Các quan phụ trách thi giao quyển, bút, nghiên, mực cho thí sinh. Quan Tuần xước dẫn các thí sinh ra ngồi ở lều thi. Quan Tuyên chế đọc chế sách (đề thi), Xong nghi lễ, vua về cung, chúa về nội phủ.

Dưới thời Lê, thi Đình thường tổ chức 3 năm 1 lần. Từ năm 1428 đến năm 1789, diễn ra khoảng hơn 100 kỳ thi. Người đỗ kỳ thi Đình được phân thành 3 hạng học vị: Đệ nhất giáp tiến sĩ cập đệ còn gọi là “Tam khôi” (Trạng nguyên, Bảng nhãn, Thám hoa); Đệ nhị giáp tiến sĩ (Hoàng giáp) và Đệ tam giáp đồng tiến sĩ xuất thân. Người đỗ được vua cho làm lễ xướng danh; lễ ban mũ, áo, đai tiến sĩ; lễ ban yến; lễ lạy tạ vinh quy và khắc bia tiến sĩ trong Văn Miếu để lưu truyền muôn đời.

thi-dinh-03

Văn bản Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, bản kỷ thực lục, Tập I, Quyển 11, 64a,b. NXb Khoa học xã hội. 1998.
(Năm Canh Tuất, Hồng Đức thứ 21 (1490), Tháng 5, “ngày 19, ba cho mũ, đai, y phục. Ngày 20 ban yến tại điện Kính Thiên”)

Quy trình chấm thi Đình cũng rất nghiêm ngặt và khác với thi Hội, do vua quyết định kết quả thi. Người đỗ đầu kỳ thi Đình gọi là Đình nguyên, có thể là Trạng nguyên, song nhiều kỳ thi không lấy được Trạng nguyên, nên Đình nguyên là Bảng nhãn, Thám hoa, có khi là Hoàng giáp, thậm chí là Đệ tam giáp đồng tiến sĩ xuất thân. Trong lịch sử, những vị “tam khôi” có nhiều đóng góp cho đất nước tiêu biểu như: Trạng nguyên Lương Thế Vinh, Nguyễn Giản Thanh; Bảng nhãn Lê Quý Đôn; Thám hoa Nguyễn Quý Đức…

Thi Đình thực sự là kỳ thi lớn nhất và cũng đồng thời là vinh quang tột đỉnh của của kẻ sĩ trên con đường học vấn, là kết quả của hàng chục năm đèn sách khổ luyện. Trong kỳ thi Đình, thí sinh thường được thể hiện hết những suy nghĩ, trăn trở của của kẻ sĩ trước vận mệnh, thời cuộc của quốc gia, đại sự. Những ý kiến nêu ra trong bài thi đã thực sự đến được người có trách nhiệm cao nhất của quốc gia. Vì thế, cuộc thi Đình trước điện Kính Thiên trong Hoàng thành Thăng Long thời Lê đã trở thành một dịp quan trọng để những tài năng trẻ – nguyên khí quốc gia “tư vấn”, góp ý cho nhà vua những chính sách phù hợp trong công cuộc trị nước, an dân và phát triển quốc gia Đại Việt.

Nguyễn Quang Hà

Tài liệu Tham khảo:

  1. Phan Huy Chú (1960): Lịch triều hiến chương loại chí, Nxb khoa học xã hội;
  2. Nhiều soạn giả (2003)/Đại Việt sử kí toàn thư, Nxb Khoa học Xã hội;
  3. Nguyễn Thị Chân Quỳnh (2002), Khoa cử Việt Nam, Nxb Văn học, 2007;
  4. Ngô Đức Thọ(Cb) (1993): Các nhà khoa bảng Việt Nam, Nxb Văn học.
  5. Nguyễn Văn Thịnh (1995)/ Văn chương đình đối thời Lê, Luận án PTS khoa học ngữ văn, Đại học Tổng Hợp Hà Nội;

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