Di sản văn hóa thế giới
Hoàng Thành Thăng Long

Đàn Xã Tắc

Năm 2006, trong lúc làm đường Kim Liên mới (phường Nam Đồng, quận Đống Đa, Hà Nội), di tích Đàn Xã Tắc bất ngờ phát lộ.

Đàn Xã Tắc là nơi thờ Thần Đất (Xã) và Thần Nông (Tắc). Đàn Xã Tắc được đắp 2 tầng, mặt cắt hình vuông, ngoảnh hướng Bắc. Tầng trên cùng cao 1,6m, mỗi cạnh dài 28m, mặt nền tô 5 màu (vàng ở giữa, xanh phía Đông, trắng phía Tây, đỏ phía Nam và đen phía Bắc) theo quan niệm ngũ hành. Trên nền tầng này có 32 bệ đá được sắp xếp để cắm tàn phục vụ hoạt động tế lễ. Đây là nơi đặt án thờ thần Đại Xã và thần Đại Tắc, cũng là nơi dành cho vua và các quan đại thần thực hiện các nghi lễ tế. Tầng dưới cao 1,2m, mỗi cạnh dài 70m, mặt nền trước lát gạch, hai bên có bệ cắm tàn. Cả 2 tầng này đều có lan can gạch bao xung quanh, cao khoảng 1m. Lối lên, xuống đàn được đặt ở chính giữa 4 mặt bằng cách xây dựng hệ thống bậc cấp. Lan can tầng 1 được quét màu vàng, lan can tầng 2 được quét màu đỏ.

Đàn Xã Tắc được đắp bằng đất. Đất đắp Đàn là đất sạch, được đóng góp từ tất cả các thành, dinh, trấn trong cả nước.

Xung quanh Đàn Xã Tắc có tường rào xây bằng gạch cao 1,2m theo hình chữ nhật. Chiều rộng khuôn viên Đàn Xã Tắc men theo hướng Bắc Nam, khoảng 160m. Chiều dài khuôn viên men theo hướng Đông Tây, khoảng 200m. Mặt tường phía Bắc được trổ 3 cửa, còn 3 mặt tường còn lại chỉ trổ mỗi mặt 1 cửa. Phía trước cửa tường Nam có một bình phong xây bằng gạch, dài 10m, cao 3,7m, dày 0,85m. Ở trước cửa phía Bắc có đào hồ nước hình vuông, mỗi cạnh dài 60m và được kè đá.

 dan-xa-tac

Nơi phát hiện Đàn Xã Tắc được ghi dấu bằng bia đá

Hằng năm, cứ vào ngày Mậu của tháng trọng xuân và tháng trọng thu (tháng 2 và tháng 8 âm lịch), lễ tế lại được đích thân nhà vua tổ chức và làm chủ tế ở Đàn này. Đây là những nghi lễ tế trời, đất và các bậc thần linh, cầu xin mùa màng tươi tốt, bình an, hạnh phúc cho muôn dân và sự thịnh trị của triều đình.

Theo nhà sử học, nhà Hà Nội học Nguyễn Vinh Phúc, Đàn Xã Tắc được coi là một trong những di tích quan trọng bậc nhất của Thăng Long xưa, được lập từ thời vua Lý Thái Tông (năm 1048). Từ sau thời vua Lê Chiêu Thống (năm 1788) Đàn Xã Tắc ở Thăng Long – Hà Nội hoàn toàn bị mất dấu. Đến năm 2006, sau hơn 200 năm bị vùi lấp, Đàn Xã Tắc Thăng Long – Hà Nội mới được phát lộ.

Do là nơi thực hiện các nghi lễ tế trời, đất do nhà vua thực hiện, nên ở mỗi nơi được đặt là kinh đô đều có 1 Đàn Xã Tắc như thế. Hiện nay, ở Huế và Thanh Hóa vẫn còn lưu giữ được 2 Đàn Xã Tắc tương đối nguyên vẹn.

Nguyễn Tào

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