Di sản văn hóa thế giới
Hoàng Thành Thăng Long
Trang chủ / Di sản thế giới mở rộng / Di sản thế giới / Abyaneh – Ngôi làng cổ nhất Iran

Abyaneh – Ngôi làng cổ nhất Iran

Được hình thành cách đây 2.500 năm, nằm trên độ cao 2.000m so với mực nước biển, cách thủ đô Tehran khoảng 300km, ngôi làng cổ Abyaneh được xây bằng gạch bùn và đất sét. Điều đặc biệt là cả ngôi làng đều có màu đỏ nên còn được gọi là làng Đỏ. Những người dân sinh sống trong ngôi làng này rất hiền hòa, hiếu khách và mặc trang phục đặc trưng theo Hồi giáo và Bái hỏa giáo.

abyaneh1

Abyaneh là ngôi làng cổ nhất Iran. Đất nước Iran ẩn chứa trong mình vô vàn những nét cổ kính của một trong những nền văn hóa lâu đời nhất thế giới mà bất kỳ du khách nào cũng muốn ghé thăm. Iran là một trong 10 nước đẹp nhất thế giới về cảnh đẹp tự nhiên cùng với những di tích lịch sử thời Ba Tư cổ đại. Cùng với làng đá nổi tiếng thế giới Kandovan (ngôi làng đá cổ nằm trên dãy núi Sahand cách trung tâm Tabriz khoảng 60km), ngôi làng cổ Abyaneh là địa điểm thu hút rất đông khách du lịch.

abyaneh2

Làng cổ Abyaneh nằm giữa Natanz và Kashan, trên sườn núi Karkas thuộc tỉnh Isfahan. Làng nằm cách đường quốc lộ không xa, nhưng bất cứ du khách nào khi bước chân đến thăm ngôi làng tĩnh mạch này đều có cảm giác như được sông lùi lại vài thế kỷ trước. Với một sắc màu đỏ duy nhất, Abyaneh là ngôi làng cổ thu hút rất nhiều khách bản địa và khách du lịch nước ngoài, đặc biệt trong trong các dịp lễ truyền thống và nghi lễ. Trong ngôi làng Abyaneh có nhiều điểm thăm quan thú vị như nhà thờ Hồi giáo Jameh được xây dựng từ thế kỷ XII, thành cổ và những lâu đài hoang phế nằm trơ trọi trên đỉnh đồi.

Hai tín ngưỡng là Hồi giáo và Bái hỏa giáo cùng song song tồn tại trong ngôi làng. Có thể nhận biết được hai đạo này thông qua trang phục của những người phụ nữ sống tại ngôi làng. Những người phụ nữ mặc áo choàng, trùm đầu khăn đen là tín đồ Hồi giáo, những người phụ nữ mặc áo hoa là tín đồ Bái hỏa giáo (phụ nữ theo đạo Bái hỏa không bị buộc phải choàng khăn đen, chỉ cần trùm kín tóc.

abyaneh3

Một điều đặc biệt là ngôi làng này thu hút một lượng khách du lịch rất đông hàng năm nhưng trong làng không có chút tiện nghi nào cho khách.

Theo các nhà nghiên cứu sử học, làng cổ Abyaneh được coi là lối vào của văn hóa Iran. Để tiếp tục có những nguồn sử liệu vật thật chứng minh cho những giá trị văn hóa vật thể của ngôi làng, trong năm 2005, Trung tâm Di sản Iran đã tiến hành cuộc khai quật khảo cổ học có quy mô lớn tại ngôi làng nhằm xác định chính xác niên đại của ngôi làng thông qua địa tầng khảo cổ học. Đồng thời Chính phủ Iran cũng đã tiến hành xây dựng và gửi hồ sơ đệ trình UNESCO công nhận làng cổ Abyaneh là Di sản Văn hóa Thế giới.

Bùi Thị Thu Phương
Trung tâm Bảo tồn Di sản Thăng Long – Hà Nội

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