Di sản văn hóa thế giới
Hoàng Thành Thăng Long
Trang chủ / Hoàng thành Thăng Long / Di tích, di vật / Gốm sứ Ai Cập được tìm thấy tại Hoàng thành Thăng Long nói nên điều gì?

Gốm sứ Ai Cập được tìm thấy tại Hoàng thành Thăng Long nói nên điều gì?

Trong đợt khai quật khảo cổ vừa qua, các nhà khảo cổ đã tìm thấy những mảnh gốm Ai Cập tại khu khảo cổ Hoàng thành Thăng Long. Phát hiện mới này đang đặt ra nghi vấn về việc có hay không mối giao thương giữa Đại Việt và khu vực Tây Á?

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Người ta vẫn gọi những mảnh gốm men xanh lam có nguồn gốc xuất xứ từ những nước Tây Á là gốm Islam (Islamic Ceramic). Đây là loại gốm có xương gốm bở, xốp, do vậy không được bền. Tuy nhiên, chính màu sắc xanh biếc của nước men đã làm nên giá trị của loại gốm này. Màu men đẹp mê hồn ấy cũng chính là lý do khiến gốm Islam rất được cư dân ở nhiều nước ưa chuộng, trong đó có người Việt Nam xưa kia.

Trước khi tìm thấy những mảnh gốm Islam tại khu khảo cổ Hoàng thành Thăng Long, người ta đã tìm thấy khoảng 100 mảnh gốm loại này ở khu vực miền Trung Việt Nam. Thái Lan chỉ tìm được khoảng 400 mảnh gốm sứ Islam, trong khi Trung Quốc cũng chỉ tìm thấy 300 mảnh gốm loại này trong quá trình khảo cổ. Điều đó cho thấy, gốm sứ Islam có mặt ở vùng đất miền Trung Việt Nam tương đối nhiều, nói cách khác, sự giao thương giữa vùng đất miền Trung Việt Nam thuở xưa với các lái buôn đến từ Tây Á diễn ra khá sầm uất.

Bởi vậy, việc lần đầu tiên tìm thấy một vài mảnh gốm Islam tại khu vực Hoàng thành Thăng Long khiến các nhà khảo cổ tỏ ra rất phấn khởi. Họ hy vọng rằng đây sẽ là những minh chứng bước đầu để chứng minh rằng giữa Đại Việt và Tây Á đã có mối giao thương từ khoảng thế kỷ thứ IX đến thế kỷ thứ X.

Tuy nhiên, với số lượng mảnh gốm Islam tìm thấy ở Hoàng thành Thăng Long như thế, thật khó để có thể dùng làm vật chứng có đủ sức thuyết phục để nói rằng triều đình thời Lý đã có quan hệ làm ăn, buôn bán với khu vực Tây Á. Nếu có quan hệ buôn bán như vậy, số lượng gốm Islam sẽ phải được tìm thấy nhiều hơn.

Trong khi đó, nếu coi rằng Islam là dòng gốm quý do sự vận chuyển cực kỳ khó khăn với điều kiện thời bấy giờ, thì việc nhà vua được cung tiến một vài món đồ như vậy là chuyện bình thường. Do vậy, sự xuất hiện của một vài mảnh gốm Islam tại khu khai quật khảo cổ Hoàng thành Thăng Long thực sự chưa đủ để chứng minh mối giao thương giữa Đại Việt và Tây Á.

Có lẽ, cần thêm nhiều chứng cứ hơn để nhận định về quan hệ giao thương giữa Đại Việt và Tây Á từ khoảng thế kỷ X có cơ sở vững vàng hơn.

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