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Trang chủ / Hoàng thành Thăng Long / Hoàng thành Thăng Long – báu sản quốc truyền mang tầm quốc tế

Hoàng thành Thăng Long – báu sản quốc truyền mang tầm quốc tế

Với việc được UNESCO công nhận là di sản văn hóa thế giới, Khu trung tâm Hoàng thành Thăng Long – một trong những di sản quý báu và lâu đời nhất của quốc gia – chính thức trở thành báu sản của toàn nhân loại. Nếu được khai thác tốt và được gìn giữ, phát huy giá trị, báu sản ấy sẽ góp phần đáng kể thúc đẩy kinh tế – xã hội phát triển.

Trước hết, phải nói rằng, giá trị của Khu trung tâm Hoàng thành Thăng Long là giá trị tự thân. Giá trị tự thân ấy được tích lũy từ ngàn đời xưa cho đến hôm nay. UNESCO công nhận danh hiệu di sản văn hóa thế giới cho Khu trung tâm Hoàng thành Thăng Long chỉ là việc tổ chức văn hóa lớn nhất thế giới này xác nhận giá trị tự thân và tầm cỡ quan trọng của Hoàng thành Thăng Long. Như vậy, sự công nhận của UNESCO không làm tăng thêm giá trị của Khu trung tâm Hoàng thành Thăng Long.

Tuy nhiên, trở thành di sản văn hóa thế giới, giá trị tự thân của Khu trung tâm Hoàng thành Thăng Long sẽ có cơ hội được nhiều người biết đến hơn, đặc biệt là những người ở ngoài Việt Nam. Đó là thuận lợi lớn để quảng bá và thu hút du khách đến với Hoàng thành.

Không chỉ mang lại lợi ích về mặt kinh tế, sự công nhận của tổ chức văn hóa uy tín nhất thế giới về giá trị của Khu trung tâm Hoàng thành Thăng Long còn là nguồn động viên tinh thần rất lớn cho nhân dân Việt Nam. Di sản ngàn đời của cha ông truyền lại, nay được khẳng định là di sản của toàn nhân loại, được thế giới tôn vinh và được bè bạn khắp năm châu nâng niu. Là người dân Việt Nam, có ai không thấy phấn khởi, tự hào!

Nỗi lo bảo tồn di sản

Như vậy, giá trị tự thân của Hoàng thành Thăng Long là rất lớn. Tuy nhiên, giá trị tự thân ấy không phải là vĩnh cửu. Nó có thể bị mai một nếu hậu thế không gắng sức giữ gìn.

Trong khi đó, theo quy định của UNESCO, nếu các di sản thế giới đã được công nhận mà không được gìn giữ, bảo tồn và phát huy giá trị thì sẽ bị xem xét rút danh hiệu. Cụ thể, tổ chức này quy định bốn mức can thiệp: ICOMOS ra khuyến nghị đối với quốc gia chưa làm tốt quy định của UNESCO, nhắc nhở, đưa di sản vào diện cảnh báo đỏ và rút danh hiệu di sản thế giới.

UNESCO có chương trình giám sát sát sao với tất cả các di sản thế giới đã được công nhận. Theo tiết lộ của tiến sỹ Phạm Sanh Châu, Tổng Thư ký Ủy ban UNESCO Việt Nam, mỗi hội nghị UNESCO được tổ chức trong 10 ngày thì chỉ có 2 ngày xem xét công nhận di sản mới, 2 ngày đánh giá công tác bảo tồn đối với các di sản đã được công nhận và 2 ngày xem xét đưa di sản vào diện cảnh báo. Trên thực tế, đã có những di sản thế giới bị UNESCO rút danh hiệu do không được bảo tồn, phát huy giá trị một cách hợp lý. Thung lũng Dresden của Đức là ví dụ điển hình. Ngay cả Việt Nam cũng đã từng phải giải trình với UNESCO về việc cho phép xây dựng một nhà máy xi măng cách di sản thiên nhiên thế giới Vịnh Hạ Long 10km. Theo UNESCO, hành động này có thể làm phương hại tới giá trị của Vịnh Hạ Long. Qua đó có thể thấy, UNESCO rất nghiêm túc trong nỗ lực bảo vệ và phát huy giá trị của các di sản thế giới.

Theo đánh giá của các chuyên gia, bảo tồn khu di tích Trung tâm Hoàng thành Thăng Long là một nhiệm vụ khó khăn. Di tích Hoàng thành vừa có di sản trên mặt đất (nền điện Kính Thiên, Đoan Môn, Hậu Lâu, Bắc Môn, Kỳ đài…), lại vừa có di tích và di vật khảo cổ học. Việt Nam hiện chưa có kinh nghiệm bảo tồn di sản dưới lòng đất và thiếu chuyên gia về lĩnh vực này. Bên cạnh đó, di sản rất dễ bị tổn hại khi mở cửa cho du khách vào tham quan.

Ý thức không tốt trong việc thực hiện Luật Di sản của một số cá nhân, cơ quan, đơn vị và tổ chức cũng là yếu tố gây nguy hại cho khu di tích Hoàng thành. Hiện tượng phát hiện hiện vật khảo cổ trong quá trình đào móng xây dựng công trình nhưng không báo cáo cơ quan chức năng không phải là hiếm. Sự kiện phá hủy một đoạn đường Hoàng Hoa Thám mới đây nhất có thể coi là hồi chuông báo động về sự xâm hại nghiêm trọng đến Hoàng thành. Đây là đoạn tường thành hiếm hoi của Hoàng thành Thăng Long xưa còn sót lại. Vậy mà, đoạn tường thành quý giá đó vẫn bị các đơn vị vô tư đào phá để làm đường. Điều này cho thấy bảo vệ Hoàng thành và nâng cao ý thức bảo vệ di sản của toàn xã hội là vấn đề cực kỳ cấp bách.

Để di sản tỏa sáng muôn đời

Để làm tốt công tác bảo tồn di sản Khu trung tâm Hoàng thành Thăng Long, thiết nghĩ, chúng ta nên mời chuyên gia nước ngoài có kinh nghiệm trong từng lĩnh vực Việt Nam còn yếu, đồng thời cử cán bộ đi học tập, nghiên cứu thêm kiến thức, kinh nghiệm từ bè bạn quốc tế. UBND thành phố Hà Nội hoặc cấp cao hơn cũng cần thiết phải ra văn bản pháp quy quy định rõ chiều cao và độ sâu được phép của các công trình xây dựng trong phạm vi Hoàng thành, lập danh sách các di tích cấm xâm phạm và quy định chế tài nghiêm khắc với bất kể hành vi xâm hại nào dù là nhỏ nhất. Có như vậy, chúng ta mới bảo tồn được di sản dưới lòng đất, bảo vệ được di tích trên mặt đất của Hoàng thành.

doanmon2

Đoan Môn – một trong số ít di tích trên mặt đất còn sót lại của Hoàng thành Thăng Long.

Việc phục dựng các công trình của Hoàng thành Thăng Long cũ là cần thiết và phù hợp với nguyện vọng của nhân dân. Tuy nhiên, để tránh làm tổn hại đến Hoàng thành và sự ổn định xã hội, chúng ta chỉ nên phục dựng một số công trình thực sự tiêu biểu, có tính đại diện cao trên cơ sở nghiên cứu kỹ lưỡng kiến trúc của mỗi công trình qua cứ liệu lịch sử. Hoàng thành Thăng Long có diện tích ước chừng khoảng 49ha, là nơi tập trung nhiều cơ quan, đơn vị và nhà dân. Do đó, việc phục dựng toàn bộ Hoàng thành là điều không thể – nó đòi hỏi một khoản chi phí khổng lồ và có thể làm đảo lộn nếp sinh hoạt của thủ đô. Chính sự xen kẽ khó tách rời này cũng đặt ra khó khăn trong công tác bảo tồn di tích. Bởi vậy, việc ra văn bản pháp quy bảo vệ Hoàng thành càng trở nên cần thiết hơn.

Gìn giữ và phát huy giá trị của khu di tích Hoàng thành Thăng Long không phải và không thể chỉ để đối phó với các quy định của UNESCO. Đây là nghĩa vụ và trách nhiệm của mỗi cá nhân, cộng đồng, tổ chức đoàn thể và chính quyền các cấp. Hoàng thành Thăng Long là di sản quý giá quốc truyền trong cả thiên niên kỷ. Do đó, không làm tốt công tác bảo tồn là có tội với tổ tiên, có tội với con cháu mai sau.

Tổ tiên đã để lại cho chúng ta di sản quý báu được cả thế giới tôn vinh. Di sản ấy không chỉ mang lại niềm tự hào với mỗi người con đất Việt, mà còn mang lại nguồn lợi kinh tế không nhỏ góp phần đưa Việt Nam đi lên trong tư thế “thăng long”. Sự kiện Trung tâm Hoàng thành Thăng Long được công nhận là di sản văn hóa thế giới khi Thăng Long – Hà Nội tiễn chào một thiên niên kỷ tồn tại để bước vào một thiên niên kỷ mới có thể coi là một điềm lành. Điềm lành ấy là sự hội tụ sinh khí thiên – địa – nhân trải suốt ngàn năm thành động lực phát triển của con cháu hôm nay và mãi mãi về sau, như hình ảnh rồng vàng bay lên đẹp đẽ năm nào…

Nguyễn Chiến Thắng

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