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Trang chủ / Di sản thế giới mở rộng / Danh thắng, di tích Việt Nam / Nhà trưng bày Hoàng Sa Bắc Hải trên đảo Lý Sơn

Nhà trưng bày Hoàng Sa Bắc Hải trên đảo Lý Sơn

Lý Sơn, một hòn đảo đẹp không chỉ nổi tiếng với hai ngư trường lớn, đặc sản hành – tỏi vang danh cả nước mà nơi đây còn chứa nhiều tầng văn hóa kế tiếp nhau: Sa Huỳnh – Chăm Pa – Đại Việt. Đặc biệt, đến với Lý Sơn, du khách không thể bỏ qua một địa điểm văn hóa lịch sử vô cùng quan trọng và thiêng liêng của tổ quốc, đó là Nhà trưng bày hải đội Hoàng Sa kiêm quản Trường Sa. Nhà trưng bày Hoàng Sa kiêm quản Bắc Hải được xây dựng vào năm 2010  thuộc huyện Lý Sơn tỉnh Quảng Ngãi. Ở đây trung bày hơn 100 hiện vật của người lính Hoàng Sa cùng nhiều bản đồ và tư liệu cổ để chứng minh Hoàng Sa Trường Sa là của Việt Nam.

image001Nhà trưng bày đội Hoàng sa Bắc Hải trên đảo Lý Sơn

Nhà trưng bày Hoàng Sa kiêm quản Bắc Hải nằm trên khuôn viên thoáng đãng có sân rộng, phía trước nổi bật là cụm tượng đài được làm bằng chất liệu đá xanh đứng hiên ngang, sừng sững. Cụm tượng đài cao 4,5m phát họa hình ảnh 3 tráng sĩ, đứng giữa cai đội trưởng mặc quân phục triều đình 1 tay chỉ thẳng ra biển hướng về Hoàng Sa còn tay kia đặt lên cột mốc có khắc dòng chữ “Vạn lý Hoàng Sa”.  Hai bên là hình ảnh 2 người lính thể hiện rõ nhiệm vụ của mình trong chuyến hải trình gian nan, 1 người cầm giáo mặc quân phục triều đình ý chỉ nhiệm vụ bảo vệ bờ cõi của Tổ quốc, 1 người mặc áo chùm vác lướt thể hiện công việc mưu sinh và đánh bắt hải vật trong quá trình làm nhiệm vụ trên biển. Mặt sau của tượng đài có khắc dòng chữ “Bản quốc hải cương Hoàng Sa xứ tối thị hiểm yếu” tạm dịch là Hoàng Sa có vị trí cực kỳ hiểm yếu đối với biên giới của quốc gia, đây được xem là chiếu của vua Minh Mạng ra năm 1936 ( năm Minh Mạng thứ 17).

image002Ghe câu, phương tiện đưa các hải đội ra đảo

Ngay từ những năm cuối thế kỷ 16 đầu thế kỷ 17 những trai tráng thuộc 2 làng An Vinh và An Hải ở cửa biển Sa Kỳ đã được Vua Chúa nhà Nguyễn kêu gọi tham gia vào hải đội Hoàng Sa kiêm quản Bắc Hải (tức Trường Sa). Mỗi năm sẽ cử 70 trai tráng giỏi nghề biển ra đi vào tháng 2 ở cửa biển Sa Kỳ và trở về vào tháng 8 tại thành Phú Xuân Huế. Mỗi đội thuyền thường gồm 5 chiếc gọi là thuyền câu dong buồm 3 ngày 3 đêm thì tới Hoàng Sa, tới nơi họ khai thác các sản vật quý hiếm và thu lượm các của cải từ những tàu thuyền bị đắm bên cạnh đó họ còn có nhiệm vụ đo đạc thủy trình để vẽ bản đồ.

Từ năm Minh Mạng thứ 17 (1836), Bộ Công tấu vua hằng năm cho cử người ra Hoàng Sa cắm cột mốc, dựng bia chủ quyền và đo đạc thủy trình, vẽ bản đồ. Vua Minh Mạng phê chuẩn trong bản tấu của Bộ Công ngày 12/2/1836 rằng “Mỗi thuyền văng thám Hoàng Sa phải đem theo 10 tấm bài gỗ dài 4,5 thước, rộng 5 tấc, dày 1 tấc làm cột mốc”. Phạm Quang Ảnh và những người đồng đội của ông là những người thực hiện cuộc hải trình đầu tiên vào năm 1837, sau 6 tháng ông cùng mọi người trở về giao nộp các sản vật quý và các tư liệu để vẽ ra bản hành chính đầu tiên của nước ta vào năm 1938. Đến năm 1854, Phạm Quang Ảnh thực hiện chuyến hải trình thứ hai, lần này ông cùng với các đồng đội của mình đã không trở về.

image003

Tư liệu bản đồ cổ khẳng định Hoàng Sa,Trường Sa là của Việt Nam

Nhà Nguyễn đã cử một đội thuyền gồm thầy phù thủy ra đến Hoàng Sa để làm lễ chiêu hồn những người lính đã hy sinh trong hải đội của Phạm Quang Ảnh. Thầy phù thủy lấy đất sắt trên núi lửa trộn với bông gòng giã nhuyễn rồi nặn cho kỳ hết số đất sắt đem về thành những hính nhân sao cho giống với hình người thật nhất. Quan niệm số lượng đất sắt đem về cũng như một phần cơ thể của người xấu số không được bỏ xót nếu không sẽ khiến họ đau đớn. Hình nhân này cũng có đầy đủ lục phủ ngũ tạng và kể cả bộ phận sinh dục, xương được làm bằng cây dâu tằm, lấy lòng đỏ trứng gà để phét làm da. Sau đó thầy phù thủy sẽ làm lễ cho hồn nhập vào hình nhân, hình nhân này sẽ được đem chôn xuống những nấm mộ gió chiêu hồn, được chăm sóc và cúng viếng như những ngôi mộ bình thường.Sau này nghi thức như thế gọi là “lễ khao lề thế lính” hay “khao lề tế lính”.

Mỗi khi ra đi mỗi người lính còn tự trang bị cho mình những hành trang gồm: một đôi chiếu cói, 7 nẹp tre, 7 sợi dây mây cùng một thẻ bài. Bình thường chiếu chỉ để dùng lót nằm chẳng may có chuyện xảy ra được dùng bó xác, nẹp bằng 7 nẹp tre, bó bằng 7 sợi dây may (số 7 tượng trưng cho vía của người đàn ông) và kèm theo thẻ bài có khắc tên họ, quê quán của người mất. Xác người mất được bó kỹ lưỡng để may mắn có thể trôi vào đất liên hoặc được ngư dân vớt và nhìn vào thẻ bài biết được danh tính của người đã mất.Đó là may mắn còn phần lớn cả đội thuyền chẳng có người sống sót:

“Hoàng Sa lắm đảo nhiều cồn
Người đi thì có mà không thấy về”
“Hoàng Sa mây nước bốn bề
Lệnh Vua sai phải quyết lòng ra đi”

Đội Hoàng Sa kiêm quản Trường Sa chính là những người đầu tiên xác lập chủ quyền đối với hai quần đảo Hoàng Sa và Trường Sa liên tục trong nhiều thế kỷ, bắt đầu từ cuối thế kỷ 16, đầu thế kỷ 17 cho đến những năm 50 của thế kỷ 19 và đến nay vẫn còn lưu danh thơm trong sử sách và đọng lại trong trí nhớ dân gian.

Với những kỳ tích đó, các vua nhà Nguyễn đã ban sắc truy phong cho những Cai đội Hoàng Sa kiêm quản Trường Sa là “Thượng đẳng thần” và cho những người lính Hoàng Sa kiêm quản Trường Sa là những “Hùng binh Hoàng Sa.”

image004

Toàn bộ hình ảnh, tư liệu tại Nhà trưng bày Hoàng Sa kiêm quản Bắc Hải được chia làm ba nội dung chính: Lý Sơn – Tịnh Kỳ – Quảng Ngãi quê hương của đội hùng binh Hoàng Sa kiêm quản Trường Sa; hoạt động của đội hùng binh Hoàng Sa, Trường Sa – sự tôn vinh của nhân dân huyện đảo Lý Sơn nói riêng, nhân dân cả nước nói chung đối với những hùng binh Hoàng Sa kiêm quản Trường Sa; và nhân dân Việt Nam thực hiện chủ quyền đối với quần đảo Trường Sa và khẳng định chủ quyền đối với quần đảo Hoàng Sa.

Không gian Nhà trưng bày nổi bật với cụm tượng đài hải đội Hoàng Sa kiêm quản Trường Sa làm bằng chất liệu đá xanh, sừng sững, uy nghiêm, vĩnh cửu, bất chấp sự khắc nghiệt của nắng mưa bão tố.

Cụm tượng đài này là hóa thân của các vị chỉ huy nổi tiếng một thời như Phú Nhuận hầu Võ Văn Phú, Hội Nghĩa hầu Võ Văn Khiết, Chánh Thủy quân suất đội Phạm Văn Nguyên, Chánh Thủy quân suất đội Phạm Hữu Nhật, Chánh Thủy quân suất đội Phạm Văn Biện… đã được sử sách lưu danh cùng hàng vạn binh phu trong đội hùng binh Hoàng Sa kiêm quản Trường Sa năm xưa.

Nhà trưng bày Hoàng Sa kiêm quản Bắc Hải còn góp phần nâng cao nhận thức và trách nhiệm của cán bộ nhân dân, đặc biệt là thế hệ trẻ hôm nay và mai sau trong việc tiếp nối cha ông giữ vững chủ quyền biển đảo – một bộ phận lãnh thổ rộng lớn và quan trọng, giàu tài nguyên của Tổ quốc và đặc biệt là đối với quần đảo Trường Sa cũng như tiếp tục đấu tranh khẳng định chủ quyền đối với quần đảo Hoàng Sa.

Bằng nguồn tư liệu, hiện vật xác thực và khoa học, phần trưng bày về nhân dân Việt Nam thực hiện chủ quyền đối với quần đảo Trường Sa và khẳng định chủ quyền đối với quần đảo Hoàng Sa, còn góp phần minh chứng và khẳng định một sự thật lịch sử quần đảo Hoàng Sa, Trường Sa vốn từ lâu là một bộ phận không thể tách rời của lãnh thổ Việt Nam.

Bùi Thị Thu Phương (tổng hợp)

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